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Language and writing

Language, script and the book of the Jews in Yugoslavia
Jewish historical museum in Belgrade, Belgrade 1979.
Collection of ancient Hebrew manuscripts in the
Jewish historical museum in Belgrade
Hedvig Boshkovich
p. 23



The only collection of ancient Hebrew manuscripts in the former Yugoslavia is located in the Jewish Historical Museum in Belgrade
There is a very important specimen Pinkas (Fig. 1). It is written in the Jewish community in Skopje in the Synagogue "Beth Jacob" from 1749 to 1913 with a mixture of Hebrew and Ladino language Rashi cursive writing. Since it is one of the oldest specimens of the museum collection is necessary to say something more about its content that will enable you to gain a picture of the life of the Jewish community in Skopje for more than 150 years. The content mainly concerns the humanitarian-religious organizations in Skopje, the synagogue, Hebron, Kadi, Bikur Holima and others. The manuscript is observed statutes, Haskame governing the charging of fees for members of the municipality, noted that these organizations regularly helping the poor with money, food, clothing, and especially the widows and orphans. Water is a record of patinicite from Palestine who came to Skopje to collect contributions for the holy land. The significance of Pinaksot is that gives information on the economic situation of the Jewish community in Skopje, for her social work relationship with fellow citizens of other nationalities and Palestine.

Fond of old Hebrew printed books
found in the Jewish Historical Museum in Belgrade,
Milica Mihailovich,
p.. 39
p.. 49

After the Second World War were published only three books with Hebrew letters. These are two books with Sephardic proverbs, prepared by Zhamila Kolonomos. In 1976 published a book of Proverbs and sayings Sephardic Jews in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and in 1978 published a book proverbs, sayings and stories of Sephardic Jews in Macedonia.
Exhibition of the Jewish Historical Museum in Belgrade 1979.

List of exhibited objects originating from Macedonia

1. MEGILA (scroll fragments of the Torah)
Macedonia, 19th century
parchment 56.5 x 2, 7 cm.
language, Hebrew
square Hebrew alphabet
Scroll found in a silver box with valjkast shape with a length of 12cm., Radius 2,5 cm. Collective Hinkov Lederera

2. Author Unknown
KANTIGA Cigars Por Nuevo (new songs for Purim)
Macedonia 19th century
paper, ink,
25 sheets, 16h21, 8 cm.
lacks binding
Ladino language
Rashi cursive script

3. Pinkas (Fig. 1)
Skopje ,1749-1912
Paper ink 14 list, 25 h41 cm.
canvas binding, leather hrbat,
language, Hebrew and Ladino and Hebrew letter Rashshi, square and cursive

Macedonia 1916
Paper Ink
1998 list, 34h47 sm.zhkartonski binding without decorations
Turkish and Ladino language
Turkish alphabet and Rashshi, italic
Only the titles of sections in the book are written in Turkish, while the Text is written in Ladino.

Skopje, 1936
Typography "Southern Serbia"
language, Serbo-Croatian
Cyrillic alphabet

Language, writing and books of the Jews in Yugoslavia
Eugen Verber
p.. 9

Some answers to many questions that are still unresolved, one thing is certain: the source language is considered Jewish only Hebrew or ivrit (origin of the word is disputed and can certainly be argued that interpreting the word was created by the Ever-coast, or from Avaris-crossing) in the Hebrew language belongs to the linguistic sense kaananska group of Northwest Semitic languages, while the findings of Roche Shamre-Ugarit, offer an opportunity for learning the Hebrew language as one of kaananskite dialects.

His oldest Hebrew usual level, based on the old Jewish tribal dialects, achieved at the end of the second millennium BC With this language were written some parts of Tnaha (or Tanah Tnah) - Old Testament and some parts of the old songs.

The most common and best degree that most of the written works of a classical biblical language from the time of the Kings - The Language of readings

(Hebrew lashon hamikra). At the time of existence of the Second Temple, Aramaic is increasingly in use as a spoken language, the Hebrew word more takes other forms, in written monuments from that period may have noticed a desire to extend the language of the last period. In the period stvaranjeto poslebibliskiot collection of legal and religious and regulations (2-3 century BC) simple, vernacular with simplified grammar, Ali enriched with new words and some Greek and Latin words, and as most of that period is the language Mishne (lashon hamishna).

Hebrew language almost 2000 years of galut (diaspora, exile) remained written language of the Jews, it is written letters, questions and answers, discussion of religious, legal and other teachings.

Hebrew texts as well as those of other languages spoken are adapted to their way of thinking and speech are called Jewish (zhudeo-espanjol, dzhudezmo, Yiddish), written with square Hebrew script, which during the 20th century little changed. Some comments; responze neobredni and other texts, written and later with various shtampani and stylization of the alef-beta, which can only conditionally be called cursive, and usually called rabbi or Rashshi letters.

Newly-created Hebrew (this name is conditional because it is exactly the same language with the old Hebrew words) in the late 19th century under the influence of the Enlightenment (Haskala-Education) and later Zionist period, and the state of Israel becomes an official language.

Aramaic was nearly twenty centuries spoken language of much of the Near and Middle East, from where it is suppressed after the appearance of Islam and the predominance of Arabic. It was the language of the Syrians-Semite that 10 to 8th century BC more established leaders in Front Asia, but over the centuries have disappeared and assimilated with other peoples. Aramaic language of science is unjustified and called haldejski belongs to the northwestern group of Semitic languages. Part of religious literature and sacred books were written in Aramaic.

Jews in Christian Shanina and Portugal accepted the Spanish and Portuguese language. Mon expulsion in 1492 years., Spanish Jews carried with them and have preserved to this day under the names: sefardski (fard of toponym village that appears only once in Tnaha, used as a Hebrew name for Spain S-fard) dzhudezmo, Ladino , zhudeo-espanol.

Sometime in the 9th century newcomers Jews in Germany began to use the language he prostoj kind of phenomenon, one of the specific forms of Jewish culture, a new spoken language of European Jews ashkenaski (from the 9th century Ashkenazi personal noun, which Tnahata mentioned 3 times and winter as a Jewish name for Germany and German-ashkenazite) After 11 who ever received the title of Yiddish. Yiddish to 16th century spoke of Jewish settlements in the Netherlands to northern Italy and from Alsace to Lithuania. Yiddish language in its treasury fit many Slavic words.

Sephardic Reactions
Studies and memories of Macedonia's Jews, 1995
Zhamila Kolonomos
500 years of Jewish-Spanish language in Macedonia
p.. 53

Jewish-Spanish language is the speech of all Sephardi Jews in the world and is rare if not unique phenomenon in the history of linguistics. The language of 15th century Spain was held between Sephardi 500 years, until today as it was at that time. By writing down from generation to generation is transported romansite, gatankite and proverbs, stories, puzzles, tazhalenkite customs, culinary specialties.
Jews in Macedonia 5 ever speak of Jewish-Spanish language. The language of the Philistines in these areas are considered in the scientific world that is most preserved. Especially it is typical of Bitola's Jews who kept their vocabulary forms known only in pre-classical texts of Spanish literature.

Jews in Yugoslavia
Museum, Zagreb 1988, 14:04 to 12:06.
Language, script, Tanah and Talmud
p.. 79

Jewish languages are spoken Yiddish and Ladino. With its move, the kingdom of long or short a time to embrace the language and dialect of the people of the host spoke that language and prilagoduvale his way of thought or expression. In his prayer, and language of the sacred learning, even literary, scientific, and further held their Hebrew, which they named Lashon hakodesh world language.
Ladino or dzhudeo - espanjol (Jewish-Spanish) is dzhudezmo spoken language or Sephardi. Occurred on the basis of preserved predklasichen strednovekoven lexicon of Spanish language, with a mixture of Hebrew and Aramaic words and languages of the immediate environment (Turkish, Greek, Serbian, Macedonian). He writes and Yiddish with Hebrew square alphabet.